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Rated: 18+ · Article · How-To/Advice · #1706822
Where to cheat in the automated counting of ballots.
The nation has just passed through a very important milestone in its history.

The first automated counting and electronic transmission of votes have moved the nation one notch up the information technology and there should be NO TURNING BACK!

In spite of the generally accepted credible election, the nation is divided by the pros and cons and by the experts and what-have-you.

The cons preferred to have the old way of counting votes, that is, manual. Allegations of massive cheating through vote buying and shaving/adding of votes are forwarded by everyone from every corner.

Allegations such as:

  1. Pre-programed memory card of the PCOS machines;
  2. Transmission of election data prior to election; and
  3. Shaving/adding of votes by COMELEC Officials for a fee.


While others are all praises to the automated process of counting the votes and electronic transmission of election returns.

Nevertheless, any which way we look at what happened, it is a common knowledge that any new process or system undergoes several glitches along the way to perfection. These glitches and/or bugs in the system are eventually corrected in the debugging process.

Along this line of thought, let us look carefully at all the stages of the process flow of the automated counting and electronic transmission of votes. It is only then that we could analyze and identify the stages where the possible cheating, glitches and/or system bugs could occur.

There are five (5) stages in the process of flow of the automated counting of votes and electronic transmission of tallied votes, these are the following:

  1. Stage I: Precinct Level – Manual casting of votes and automated counting of votes by the Precinct 
      Counter Optical Scanner (PCOS) machines.
  2. Stage II: Precinct Level – PCOS Electronic transmission of Precinct Election Returns (PER) to the
      Municipal Servers through the Data Processing Center (DPC).
  3. Stage III: Municipal Level – Tallying of PER into Statement of Votes (SOV) and electronic 
      transmission of SOV to the Provincial Servers through the DPC.
  4. Stage IV: Provincial Level – Tallying of SOV into Certificate of Canvass (COC) and electronic
      transmission of COC to the COMELEC Servers through the DPC.
  5. Stage V: Provincial Level – Delivery of memory cards and printed COC to the National Board of
      Canvasser (NBC).


FIRST STAGE – PRECINCT LEVEL:
Initially, let us look at what happened at the first stage of the process flow, that is, at the precinct level.


At the precinct level voters manually filled up the ballots and fed into the Precinct Counter Optical Scanner (PCOS) machines. The processes are as follow:

Process:

  1. Voters filled up the ballots and fed into the PCOS machine for processing;
  2. If the ballot is not good, it is rejected by the PCOS and the votes are not counted;
  3. If the ballot is good, it is accepted by the PCOS and the votes are collated and tallied;
  4. The collated ballots and tallied votes are stored the PCOS memory card;
  5. After all ballots are collated and counted, the Chairman of the Board of Election Inspectors (BEI) will print the Precinct
      Election Returns from the PCOS machines;
  6. After printing the PER, the PCOS will be connected to a modem, by a representative of SMARTMATIC, using the
      Subscriber Identity Module(SIM) card of either SMART or GLOBE, depending the strongest signal available and
      electronically transmit the election data to the Data Processing Center (DPC) which could either be SMART or GLOBE;
      and
  7. The DPC then electronically receives and transmits the election data, PER, to the Municipal Servers.


Issues of concern:

  1. Is the PCOS memory card clean?
  2. Is the total number of rejected and good ballots equal the total number of voters who voted in the particular cluster of
      precincts?
  3. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the printed Election Returns (PER) and the PCOS memory cards?
  4. Is there a way to authenticate that the printed PERs are the real content of the PCOS memory card?
  5. Is the SIM clean?
  6. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the SIM cards that was used in the transmission of the election data?
  7. Is the DPC clean?
  8. Is the DPC programmed ONLY TO RECEIVE AND SEND DATA?
  9. Is the DPC dedicated to RECEIVE DATA ONLY FROM AUTHENTICATED SIM CARDS of the PCOS machines and
      transmits the same data only to authenticated SIM cards of City/Municipal Servers?
  10. Is the DPC allowed to receive data prior the start of election date and/or closing election time?
  11. What is the control mechanism of COMELEC to the electronic data transmission of the DPC?


SECOND STAGE – PCOS ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION OF ELECTION DATA TO MUNICIPAL SERVERS

Process:

  1. Election data (PER) from various PCOS machines are electronically transmitted to the Municipal Servers through the DPC;
  2. The Municipal Servers receive and collate the PER from the DPC;
  3. The votes from PER are tallied and collated by the servers of the Municipal/City canvasser;
  4. The tallied PERs are stored in the memory card of the Municipal/City Servers as Statement of Votes (SOV);
  5. The Statement of Votes (SOV) are then printed;
  6. The City or Municipal Canvasser proclaims the winning candidates for Congressman, Mayor, Vice Mayor and Councilors;
      and
  7. The SOV are electronically transmitted to the Provincial Servers via the DPC.

Issues of concern:

  1. Are the memory card and/or hard disk of the City and Municipal Servers clean?
  2. Is the SIM card of each City and/or Municipal Server clean?
  3. Can the SIM card accept electronic data (PER) from other sources outside of DPC?
  4. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the printed SOV, memory cards and SIMs that was used in the transmission of
      the election data?
  5. Is the DPC clean?
  6. Is the DPC programmed ONLY TO RECEIVE AND SEND DATA?
  7. Is the DPC dedicated to RECEIVE DATA ONLY FROM AUTHENTICATED SIM CARDS of the PCOS machines and
      transmits the same data only to authenticated SIM cards of City/Municipal Servers?
  8. Is the DPC allowed to receive data prior the start of election date and/or closing election time?
  9. What is the control mechanism of COMELEC to the electronic data processing and/or transmission at the DPC?



THIRD STAGE – ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION OF ELECTION DATA, SOV, FROM THE CITY/MUNICIPAL SERVERS TO PROVINCIAL SERVERS

Process:

  1. Election data, SOV, from various Cities and Municipalities are electronically transmitted to the Provincial Servers via DPC;
  2. The Provincial Servers receive and collate the election data, SOV, from the DPC;
  3. The votes from SOV are tallied and collated by the servers of the Provincial canvasser;
  4. The tallied SOV are stored and saved in the memory card of the Provincial Servers as Certificate of Canvass (COC);
  5. The Provincial Canvasser proclaims the winning candidates for Governor, Vice Governor and Board Members; and
  6. The Certificate of Canvass (COC) are printed and electronically transmitted to the COMELEC Servers via the DPC.


Issues of concern:

  1. Are the memory card and/or hard disk of the Provincial Servers clean?
  2. Is the SIM card of each Provincial Server clean?
  3. Can the SIM card accept electronic data (SOV) from other sources outside of DPC?
  4. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the printed COC, memory cards, and SIM cards that was used in the provincial
      canvassing?
  5. Is the DPC clean?
  6. 6. Is the DPC programmed ONLY TO RECEIVE AND SEND DATA?
  7. Is the DPC dedicated to RECEIVE DATA ONLY FROM AUTHENTICATED SIM CARDS of City/Municipal Servers and
      transmits the same data only to authenticated SIM cards of Provincial Servers?
  8. Is the DPC allowed to receive data prior the start of election date and/or closing election time?
  9. What is the control mechanism of COMELEC to the electronic data transmission of the DPC?


FOURTH STAGE – ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION OF ELECTION DATA, COC, FROM THE PROVINCIAL SERVERS TO THE COMELEC SERVER


Process:

  1. The Certificate of Canvass (COC) from various Provinces are electronically transmitted to the COMELEC Servers via DPC;
  2. The COMELEC Servers receive and collate the COC from the provinces;
  3. The COC are tallied and collated by the servers of the COMELEC canvasser;
  4. The election data are stored in the memory card of the COMELEC Servers;
  5. The COMELEC prints the collated and tallied COC; and
  6. The COMELEC Canvasser proclaims the winning candidates for Senators and Party List.


Issues of concern:

  1. Are the memory card and/or hard disk of the COMELEC Servers clean?
  2. Is the SIM card of the COMELEC Server clean?
  3. Can the SIM card accept electronic data (SOV) from other sources outside of DPC?
  4. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the SIMs that was used in the transmission of the election data?
  5. Is the DPC clean?
  6. 6. Is the DPC programmed ONLY TO RECEIVE AND SEND DATA?
  7. Is the DPC dedicated to RECEIVE DATA ONLY FROM AUTHENTICATED SIM CARDS of Provincial Servers and
      transmits the same data only to authenticated SIM cards of the COMELEC Servers?
  8. Is the DPC allowed to receive data prior the start of election date and/or closing election time?
  9. What are the control mechanism of COMELEC to the electronic data processing and/or transmission of the DPC?


FIFTH STAGE – MANUAL DELIVERY OF MEMORY CARDS AND PRINTED COC FROM THE PROVINCIAL CANVASSERS TO THE NATIONAL BOARD OF CANVASSER (NBC)

Figure 5 below shows the process flow of manual delivery of the printed Certificate of Canvass (COC) and memory cards from the different Provinces to the National Board of Canvasser (NBC).

The NBC is the joint committee of senate and congress consisting of nine senators and nine congressmen.

Process:

  1. A joint committee of nine (9) senators and nine (9) congressmen will be formed and act as the National Board of
      Canvasser (NBC);
  2. The Certificate of Canvass (COC) and memory cards from various Provinces are manually delivered to the NBC;
  3. The printed COC from the provinces will be compared with data from the memory cards of the Provincial servers;
  4. If the COC and the data from the memory cards are the same, the COC will be tallied by the NBC canvasser, if not, both
      will be set aside for deliberation;
  5. The NBC prints the tallied COC; and
  6. The NBC will proclaim the winning candidates for the President and Vice President based on the result of the tallied COC.


Issues of concern:

  1. Are the memory cards of the Provincial Servers clean?
  2. Who is accountable for the safekeeping of the printed COC, memory cards, and SIM cards that was used in the provincial
      canvassing?
  3. Are the data inside the memory cards are the same with the printed COC?
  4. Are these the real printed COC and memory cards from the provinces?


GENERAL OVERVIEW


From the PCOS machines of the different cluster precincts the votes are tallied and printed as Precinct Election Returns (PER). The PER are electronically transmitted to the city or municipal servers. The Municipal Canvassers then tallied the PER and printed as the Statement of Votes (SOV) for the particular City or Municipality. The City or Municipality proclaimed the winning candidates for Congressmen, Mayors, Vice Mayors and Councilors base on the SOV.

The SOV are electronically transmitted from the cities and municipalities to the Provincial Servers. The Provincial Canvassers tallied the SOV and printed as the Certificate of Canvass (COC). The Provincial Canvasser proclaimed the winning candidates for Governor, Vice Governor and Board Members based on the COC.

The COC are electronically transmitted to the COMELEC. Based on the tallied COC, the COMELEC proclaims the winning Senators and Party List.

Later, the COC and memory cards of the various provinces will be brought to NBC for canvassing. Based on the tallied COC, the NBC will proclaim the winning President and Vice President.
Note that the COMELEC receives all electronically transmitted election data, PER, SOV, and COC from the start of the process and sends it to all accredited servers.

After the completion of each stage on the process flow of the automated counting and electronic transmission of election data, PER, SOV and COC, what are the control systems of the COMELEC to safeguard the printed PER, SOV, and COC together with the memory cards and SIM cards used at each stage of the system?

HOW CHEATING COULD HAPPEN:


Stage 1 and 2:

  1. PCOS memory card are pre-programed to tally different votes.
  2. The SIM card used contained different data.
  3. The DPC could accept data prior to the closing time of the election.
  4. The DPC would accept data from any SIM card.
  5. The DPC could tally election data.
  6. The COMELEC has no control system on the electronic data processing and/or transmission within the DPC.


Stage 3:

  1. The memory card and/or hard disk of the City and Municipal Servers already contain election data.
  2. The memory card and/or hard disk of City and Municipal Server are pre-programed to tally different election returns.
  3. The SIM card of the City and Municipal servers are allowed to receive data from different sources besides the DPC and the
      SIM card already contained different data.
  4. The SIM cards can accept election data prior the election date and closing time.
  5. The DPC could accept data prior to the closing time of the election.
  6. The DPC would accept data from any SIM card.
  7. The DPC could tally election data.
  8. The COMELEC has no control system on the electronic data processing and/or transmission within the DPC.


Stage 4:

  1. The memory card and/or hard disk of the Provincial Servers already contain election data.
  2. The memory card and/or hard disk of Provincial Server are pre-program to tally different election returns.
  3. The SIM card of the Provincial servers are allowed to receive data from different sources other than the DPC and the SIM
      card already contained different data.
  4. The SIM cards can accept election data prior the election date and closing time.
  5. The DPC could accept data prior to the closing time of the election.
  6. The DPC would accept data from any SIM card.
  7. The DPC could tally election data.
  8. The COMELEC has no control system on the electronic data processing and/or transmission within the DPC.


Stage 5:

  1. The memory card and/or hard disk of the Provincial Servers already contain election data.
  2. The memory card and/or hard disk of Provincial Server are pre-programed to tally different election returns.
  3. The delivered memory cards and printed COC are not the real ones.



ANALYSIS:

Cheating, through shaving and adding of votes, could happen if there is a COMELEC and/or SMARTMATIC Officials involved, since all electronic paraphernalia, such as PCOS machines, SIM cards, and Memory Cards are controlled by the COMELEC and, in a way by, SMARTMATIC.

Outside of COMELEC, cheating could happen within the DPC.

At all stages, except Stage 5, of the electronic transmission of election data, there are four (4) possible ways of cheating that would be beyond the control of COMELEC and the site where this happens is common to all stages of the whole process flow of the electronic transmission of election data.

These four (4) possible ways of cheating are the following:

  1. Items 3, 4, 5 & 6 of Stage 1 &2; and
  2. Items 5, 6, 7 & 8 of Stages 3 & 4.

The four (4) possible ways of cheating where votes could be shaved or added occurs at the same site of the electronic process flow, that is, within the DPC.

The electronic data processing and/or transmission at this site, is in a way, beyond the control of the COMELEC.
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