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by K.HBey
Rated: E · Article · Health · #2198887
Obesity is linked to physical inactivity, bad foods and beverages and bad eating way.
How to get a normal body mass index?
1/Introduction:
Obesity is the abnormal increase of the body mass index. It is a complex pathological phenomenon which involves many mechanisms in the same time.
Idiopathic obesity is the obesity that genesis is unknown. This kind of obesity is meant here.
Obesity is not only noticed with the adult population but with children population as well.

2/The main reasons of obesity:
Obesity becomes more frequent nowadays around the world. This is most attributed to our modern life which renders people both sedentary and stressed most often.
The consumption of some industrial foods is also the cause of obesity. Such foods contain abnormal ratios of the different nutriments like carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Also they are much salted.
The consumption of some beverages like soda and alcohol is a direct factor of obesity.
Stress is an indirect factor of obesity. Indeed during stress some persons increase the consumption of great quantity of food without being hungry. It is a mean of defense against stress. Also during stress researchers have found that there is a release of high level of an adrenal hormone the cortisol. Cortisol allows the retention of both salt and water in the human corps. Cortisol excess level means high retention; a thing which provokes the weight increase.
Also some chemicals (chemicals improver) used in industrial foods provoke weight gain.
Researchers have found a strong relationship between the sleep disturbances and the obesity especially belly fat increase. That is why persons who work during the night have more risk to develop obesity.
So the physical inactivity, the consumption of bad foods and beverages, the consumption of high quantity of carbohydrates and salt and the stress are the most important reasons of obesity.

3/Definition of body mass index:
*In medicine we assess the weight by body mass index (BMI). It means it is a rate of the weight according to the squired seize.
*BMI= weight kg/ squired size cm: BMI: P/T2
*BMI lecture:
Below 16.5: Malnutrition/anorexia
16.5_18.5: Thinness
18.5_25: Ideal weight
25_30: over weight
30_35: moderate obesity
35_40: severe obesity
Over 40: dangerous and invasive obesity

4/Physio-pathological mechanisms of idiopathic obesity:
*The basic metabolism is the amount of energy that a corps needs to survive and to assure his daily tasks and activities. It differs from one person to another. As it is influenced by many other hormones like the TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone and GH: growth hormone. Such energy is provided from the consumed calories. So the calories that someone consumes is either stored or spent in energy. That is why calories concept is a relative notion. For example two persons can consume the same amount of calories but their corpses use such calories differently by the mechanism of either spending to produce energy or storing in the liver as a glycogen. Such latter is the stored form of glucose. One might be thin and the other might be obese. That is because they have different basic metabolism.
* On the one hand, high blood level of insulin has been noticed with obese persons and directly incriminated in the obesity process. Indeed the increase of insulin leads to low blood level of glucose. This increases the hunger and the consumption of high amount of foods especially carbohydrates.
*On the other hand, Leptin is a hormone which is found in adipose cells and it is the hormone of satiety. In fact there is a reflex between hunger and satiety. Such reflex of hunger (The release of insulin) and satiety (The release of Leptin) is broken with obese persons in favor to insulin, a thing which leads to high insulin level.This is completely harmful.

5/Advices:
*Eating at regular time helps to obtain the correct body mass index (BMI). The intermittent fasting is indeed a good way to maintain or obtain a correct BMI. But fasting is not allowed for people who possess severe anemia, pregnant women and those who possess a particular pathological state which forbids fasting.
Nowadays the 16h/08h becomes a successful intermittent fasting. It means fasting 16 hours and just water, tea and coffee without sugar are allowed and then eating during the 08 hours with the decrease of the carbohydrates ration and salt.

*Eating when only you feel hungry.

* To increase both vegetables and fruits in your dishes is a wise thing. But some both vegetables and fruits which contain much carbohydrates should be taken in a reasonable quantity like bananas and potatoes (for example 02 per day) and in an intermittent way (02 once a week) and alternate with another fruit or vegetable which contains less carbohydrates instead.

*Diminish the quantity of carbohydrates (CH) in general: with the respect of the daily ratios of the different nutriments: 50%CH/ 20% PROTEINS and 10% FATS.
*The Keto diet is not out of harmfulness. Indeed it requires the strict diminution of carbohydrates. This is a wise thing. However it also requires the increase of the ration of both proteins and fats. High quantity of ingested proteins and in a permanent way, is known to provoke renal insufficiency and to increase the risk of cancer. High quantity of ingested fats especially animal ones increases the level of triglycerides which are the stored form of fats and which can be transformed in glucose in our corps.
*The most harmful carbohydrates are those found in foods which contain white sugar and high rates of feculent. They could be substituted with foods which possess better quality of carbohydrates. For example dates, dry fruits and both fruits and vegetables in general are good. However it remains reasonable to take them in moderate quantity and to assure their variation. Indeed such latter possess carbohydrates which are seldom stored and possess low metabolism which let them stabilize the glucose blood level. It is also the case of for example :potato/banana/brown rice/some grains like peans. Nevertheless they should be taken in reasonable quantities too.
*Carbohydrates should be both diminished and varied too. To take two fruits is enough as a daily ration of carbohydrates. . Example: Monday: 02 fruits/Tuesday: 02 cookies/Wednesday: 20g of chocolate/I continue with two fruits per day the other days of the week. Fruits should be varied.
*Bread and feculent should not be taken every day(twice a week for example) Monday I take 02 slices of grilled bread 50g/Tuesday take 02 potatoes 50g/Wednesday 50g to 100g of beans . The other days I take only vegetables.

*The proteins should be varied during the week. For example on Monday I take two fishes/ Tuesday I take 02eggs/Wednesday I take a slice of beef steak of 100g max. Also the intake of animal proteins should be restricted to once a week for example especially red meat. Fishes proteins are the best and can be used frequently .

*Fats can be transformed into glucose in the corps. That is why it is wise to diminish and to vary fats. It means the intermittent intake of vegetable and animal fats with the given preference to vegetables ones. The animal fats should be restricted to once a week for example and in low quantity. For example: Monday I take 20g of butter/Tuesday 30 g of olive oil/Wednesday 20 peanut oil and I continue with olive or peanut oil. Olive oil fats are the best. That is why it should be used frequently.

*The dinner is preferred to be light and taken at most 19h. For example a soup/salad/02 grilled fishes/01 fruit. Indeed our corps stores foods after 19h.

*The diminution of the global daily intake calories is a relative theory. A normal person which is active needs an average of 2000 K. calories. The calories should be reduced to 1000K.calories daily. This value could be increased according to the daily activities up to 1500K.cal. However this does not mean deprivation. Indeed someone can increase foods in order to satisfy his hunger but such foods should contain low calories quantities like green vegetables like spinach and oleaginous like peanut, almond and some fruits.
Indeed someone can eat more but ingest low calories and someone can eat less and ingest more calories.
The calculation of calories in foods is submitted to such physiological rule:
1gramme of carbohydrates or proteins=4K.cal
1gramme of fats=9K.cal
1gramme of alcohol=7K.cal
Food: Calories
The caloric value of some foods:
1. Apple, medium: 72
2. Bagel: 289
3. Banana, medium: 105
4. Beer (regular, 12 ounces): 153
5. Bread (one slice, wheat or white): 66
6. Butter (salted, 1 tablespoon): 102
7. Carrots (raw, 1 cup): 52
8. Cheddar cheese (1 slice): 113
9. Chicken breast (boneless, skinless, roasted, 3 ounces): 142
10. Chili with beans (canned, 1 cup): 287
11. Chocolate chip cookie (from packaged dough): 59
12. Coffee (regular, brewed from grounds, black): 2
13. Cola (12 ounces): 136
14. Corn (canned, sweet yellow whole kernel, drained, 1 cup): 180
15. Egg (large, scrambled): 102
16. Graham cracker (plain, honey, or cinnamon): 59
17. Granola bar (chewy, with raisins, 1.5-ounce bar): 193
18. Green beans (canned, drained, 1 cup): 40
19. Ground beef patty 193 (15 percent fat, 4 ounces, pan-broiled):
20. Hot dog (beef and pork): 137
21. Ice cream (vanilla, 4 ounces): 145
22. Jelly doughnut: 289
23. Ketchup (1 tablespoon): 15
24. Milk (2 percent milk fat, 8 ounces): 122
25. Mixed nuts (dry roasted, with peanuts, salted, 1 ounce): 168
26. Mustard, yellow (2 teaspoons): 6
27. Oatmeal (plain, cooked in water without salt, 1 cup): 147
28. Orange juice (frozen concentrate, made with water, 8 ounces): 112
29. Peanut butter (creamy, 2 tablespoons): 180
30. Pizza (pepperoni, regular crust, one slice): 298
31. Pork chop (center rib, boneless, broiled, 3 ounces): 221
32. Potato, medium (baked, including skin): 161
33. Potato chips (plain, salted, 1 ounce): 155
34. Pretzels (hard, plain, salted, 1 ounce): 108
35. Raisins (1.5 ounces): 130
36. Ranch salad dressing (2 tablespoons): 146
37. Red wine (cabernet sauvignon, 5 ounces): 123
38. Rice (white, long grain, cooked, 1 cup): 205
39. Salsa (4 ounces): 35
40. Shrimp (cooked under moist heat, 3 ounces): 84
41. Spaghetti (cooked, enriched, without added salt, 1 cup): 221
42. Spaghetti sauce (marinara, ready to serve, 4 ounces): 92
43. Tuna (light, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces): 100
44. White wine (white sauvignon, 5 ounces): 121
45. Yellow cake with chocolate frosting (one piece): 243
As there are many other established tables of the caloric value of the different foods.


*Physical activity does not mean sport necessarily. Walking half an hour daily is an activity.

*Nibbling: is a bad habit which jeopardizes any diet. You should stop it by a franc weaning or by substances substitution. In this latter case someone could increase the number of meals. However he should choose foods which have low calories values. For example a vegetable soup is a good idea for those who possess such bad habit which is nibbling. They can take such soup several times per day.

*Drinking water during the day is a wise thing (2 to 2.5 l/day).


6/Conclusion:
Obesity is pathological because when it becomes permanent it might lead to heavy diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. That is why someone should fight against it.
Obesity is not only the individual matter but public health matter. That is why foods industries should be involved as well as public and private institutions, in the prevention.To decrease the quantity of both sugar and salt and to equilibrate the ratios of the different nutriments; is a preventive measure that foods industries might do. The same recommendations should be given to restaurants. They should also add more both vegetables and fruits in their dishes.Children at school are submitted to the same measures.
Some advices remain available.Like eating healthy foods is the first step to follow in order to obtain a correct BMI. Choose foods which are low in calories. Eat at regular time and stop nibbling. Eat less both sugar and salt. Vary your foods. Be active by at least walking a half an hour per day. A good hydration is a need. Sleep eight hours per day and when there is a lack of sleep hours try to compensate by an extra rest like to have a nap .Do not let nutrition be your obsession. That is why you should occupy your day by several activities.


1925 words






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