A outline describing the necessary technical/commercial terminology & explanation
|Outline for General technical terms useful for Merchandisers, Designers, Product Development Managers in Apparel Industry|
Apart from natural growth,Cotton is also grown organically .To determine the originality of organic cotton certification from Eco institutes
Yarns spun from cotton are expressed as COUNTS which is from 1s TO 200s (expressed as 840yds weighing 1lb)Finer counts are spun from Sea Island/Egyptian/Pima cotton.
Coarser yarns are used to make fabrics like canvas finer yarn are used to manufacture fabrics for shirting.Carded yarns are coarser, and Combed yarn are finer
Silk and Wool are protein fibre..
Quality of Wool is certified by IWS.
Flax/Linen are terms associated with bast fibres; fineness is expressed as Lea..
Viscose and Polynosic Lyocell are regenerated manmade fibres. Nylon , Spandex and Microfibres are synthetic .
Polyester are polyamide fibres that are spun as filament or spun yarns. Tex is used to denote the fineness of the yarn
Folded yarns are called cabled yarn where two or more yarns plied/doubled. Fancy yarns are spun from waste yarns..Yarns;
have to be even with proper strength ASTM assess the quality of yarns. Numbering(fineness) of yarn used in synthetic yarns are direct system for cotton yarns it is indirect system.Combed yarn are even in nature, yarn defects as kitties, slubs, neps, oil stains will be reflected in processed fabrics.
Fabrics are formed by interlacement of Warp & Weft yarns.Depending on weight per square metre fabrics are classified .Example are
Damask (ground twill weave figure satin) patterned cotton fabric,End on End shirting fabric.Gabardine a sheeting fabric,Jacquard (brocade)fabrics,Lawn light weight fabrics,Bleeding Madras,Napped fabric,Oxford,Sateen having sheen and more yarn on the face of the cloth,Terry weave,Velvet(cut loops from warp piles),Voile,Corduroy(cut loops from weft piles),Canvas,Chambray,Crepe fabric,Seersucker,Crinkle fabric,Chiffon,Duck ,Georgettee,Poplin
Vat dyes are dull but yield good colour fastness .Reactive dyes are bright in nature.Acid dyes are used on wool,silk,acrylic.Fabrics/raw materials meant for dyeing should be thoroughly bleached/mercerised.Fluroscent & Pigment dyes are not fast .
Process of dyeing is carried in fibre, yarn, fabric, garment forms.
Hand block printing, Screen printing on table/rotary machine , Reactive printing, Discharge printing,Resist Printing,Pigment printing are some of the techniques. Repeat of design in rotary is 64cm, table 34cm.
Colour Fastness(wash & crocking), Shrinkage, Flammability, Azo testing, Abrasion resistance, Light Fastness are some of the basic testing.
Sanforisation/Compressive shrinking, calendering, embossing, brushing, peaching/emerising to enhance the handle & durability of the fabrics.Various finishes on garments are done to enhance its value.
Point/AQL systems are used to assess the quality of fabric. Before any dyeing/printing process, the grey fabric has to be inspected to make sure it is streak free . Dyed fabrics need to be free from patches, consistency, free from lot variations. Printed fabric must not have mis printsor smudges.