In theory, a unification of forces.
Einstein always dreamed of unifying the four fundamental forces:
the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and gravity.
This Unified Field Theory eluded him.
Although quantum mechanics could not include gravity in unification,
String Theory encompasses gravity, uniting all.
Chronos_w Poem: Single Stanza, 5 lines
(Count in words)
Line 1: 9
Line 2: 8
Line 3: 6
Line 4: 9
Line 5: 6
Writer’s Cramp: November 17, 2011
There are four fundamental forces in nature. The electromagnetic force, responsible for electric forces and magnetism, is basically the flow and interaction of electrons. The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay. The strong nuclear force is the incredibly powerful force that holds together the nucleus of the atom, a force demonstrable now to us humans in the yield of hydrogen bombs. The strong nuclear force comes about from neutrons, which act as a kind of glue that holds together the mutually repulsive forces of the like-charged protons. And last there is of course gravity.
Gravity is incredibly weak compared to the other forces, and was always the “odd man out” when it came to relating to the other forces, which were understood and fitted mathematically with quantum mechanics. Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity which explained gravity exquisitely in terms of mass and the bending of the fabric of space time, but there was never any way in which to relate it to the other three forces; no mathematical constructs could ever be devised for this, “Unified Field Theory”, something Einstein so desperately worked for until his death.
String Theory now exists as a branch of physics which now seemingly unites them all, bringing in the elusive gravity, at least mathematically anyway. But there is a problem, in that, at least for now, it is entirely theoretical, as no devisable tests and/or observations have been developed for verification. The world of the atom (the quantum level) is particularly bizarre. Yet the proposed world of energy strings is even more-so, with mathematical predictions of multiple dimensions, as many as six. The world of the atom is incredibly small, but with instruments, we can see atoms, such as uranium atoms. However, the predicted energy strings are even incredibly smaller, such that if an atom were the size of the solar system, an energy string would be the size of a tree.
It is very complex, but the basic upshot of it all is that these energy strings, loops for the most part, define the very particles in the atomic (quantum) world, defining their very character based upon the way in which these string pulse and vibrate. And there seems to be an infinite amount of particles in the quantum world, as quarks were discovered within protons, and then even smaller particles were discovered in quarks. A virtual smorgasbord of particles has been discovered. Moreover, the added dimensionality predicted at the string level is fundamental in developing constituency.
Gravity can be included within String Theory now because of the proposed “graviton” which is a particle of gravity, mathematically predicted by the theory, and hence unifying all forces. Some wonder, however, if this is more of philosophy, rather than physics, because of the lack of falsifiable testing and observation. But one thing is certain, and that is that it is an elegant universe, on both the scale of the very large and the very small, and science will forever remain exceedingly unbiased and insatiably inquisitive.