Community-wide campaign strategies programs apply multiple intervention strategies
|Community-wide campaign strategies refer to comprehensive programs that apply multiple intervention strategies throughout the different settings in a community (Matson-Koffman, Brownstein, Neiner, & Greaney, 2005). They normally include individual â€“level behavior change, organizational, social, community and policy components which affect positive behavior changes among individuals and community of persons. It has been found that due to their multidimensional approach, these campaigns are very effective in terms of influencing levels of physical activity by integrating multiple intervention strategies (CDC, 2010). In my view, community campaign strategies are very effective means by which physical activity and physical fitness among adult and children alike can be increased. The strategies that ensure such outcomes include mass media programs such as physical fitness programs and nutrition based programs, individual education through community resource centers, social support programs, physical activity events, health fairs and environmental changes (Ramsey, Kahn, Brownson, Heath, Howze, & Powell, 2002). The impact of such programs is that they create community-wide awareness among different levels and persuasions and therefore provide a proper avenue for individuals to undertake capacity building for the purposes of integrating the various programs into their daily lives (Winkleby & Cubbin, 2003). Consequently, I agree with the contributions of community-wide campaigns due to the findings that various health institutions and other sources have established concerning these strategies.
Substantive reviews of various community-wide programs have determined that there are certain progresses that have been made by using such strategies (Winkleby & Cubbin, 2003). To begin with, community-wide campaigns increase peopleâ€™s intention to be physically activity through routine exercises. For instance, in a certain stage it was found out that these programs led to a net increase of people who are physically active by 4.2%, with an interquartile range of -29% to 9.4% (Wen, et al., 2002). Secondly, they increase peopleâ€™s knowledge concerning exercises and physical activity which enables them to make informed decisions concerning being physically active (Matson-Koffman, Brownstein, Neiner, & Greaney, 2005). Thirdly, it has been empirically determined that the amount of energy used by people who undertake physical workouts increases by a net median of 16.3% with an interquartile range of 7.6% and 21.4% (Matson-Koffman, Brownstein, Neiner, & Greaney, 2005). This increase is mainly attributed to the fact that community-wide strategies involves a great many individuals into the program of healthy living and thus a desire by the people reached through these programs to become active in maintaining their physical fitness.
There are also health implications that have enabled community-wide strategies to sensitize people on. For instance, there has been proof of reduction of cardiovascular complications among people who are involved in physical work (Center for Public Health Nutrition, 2005). This message has been effectively passed by the community-wide strategies. Furthermore, especially among the black Americans, Mexican-Americans, and even the white men and women in the United States of America, socioeconomic status in certain neighborhoods affect mortality rates (Center for Public Health Nutrition, 2005). This situation has necessitated some community members in some neighborhoods to initiate such programs with an overwhelming impact on the people impacted on. In various systematic reviews however, studies measuring changes in body weight had varying results (Wen, et al., 2002). Some did indicate weight increase while some results were inconclusive as other showed weight loss. Nevertheless, other results have tried to promote the value of these community-wide strategies. For instance, between 1968 and 1994, forty four reviewed empirical studies had interesting conclusions. One such was case in point was that these programs were able to reach 39% of the population in America which was already obese and were considered a part of the population in need (Center for Public Health Nutrition, 2005). However, it also demonstrated that weight loss was normally achieved beyond a period of six months. Finally, regardless of the immense benefits that community-wide campaign strategy demonstrate, it has been realized that there is an acute deficiency of literature on community based strategies hence the lack of awareness or full integration of the programs by community development groups in different neighborhoods (Ramsey, Kahn, Brownson, Heath, Howze, & Powell, 2002). In light of the challenges facing the strategies, I would recommend various steps to be undertaken in order to find amicable solutions that foster the growth of these strategies.
In order to benefit wholly from community wide strategies it is important to undertake various initiatives (CDC, 2010). To begin with, it is crucial that communities adapt community-wide campaigns to specifically targeted populations. This can normally be done by careful consideration of the cultural norms and traditions while selecting settings of interventions, or their designs. Secondly, it is important that whenever these strategies are employed, one gets to health messages which account for language or literacy needs of various targeted populations. Another key component of such strategies would be adequate planning for such campaigns through clear identification of sufficient resources and coordinating the implementation of various components of the intervention strategies (Ramsey, Kahn, Brownson, Heath, Howze, & Powell, 2002). Additionally it is also important to understand the various dynamics that involve the various interventions that are pursued by various organizers in various community-wide intervention strategies. For instance, it is common in some instances to find community wide campaigns targeting other behavioral risk factors, including tobacco use and healthy living. These behavioral factors enable people to maximize the use of resources that enable the community-wide strategies to utilize their full potentials (Ramsey, Kahn, Brownson, Heath, Howze, & Powell, 2002). In conclusion therefore, I would conquer that in spite of the drawbacks of the community wide strategies; it nonetheless remains an important part of the strategies that are effective in increasing physical activity and improving physical fitness among adults and children.
CDC. (2010, March). Strategies for Increasing Physical Activity in the Community. Retrieved June 19, 2012, from Physical Activity Guide: https://www.myctb.org/wst/npaoeval/Shared%20Documents/Guidance%20Document%201.%2...
Center for Public Health Nutrition. (2005, March). Best Options for Promoting Healthy Weight and Preventing weight gain in NSW. Retrieved June 19, 2012, from State of Food and Nutrition in NSW Series: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2005/pdf/healthyweight.pdf
Matson-Koffman, D. M., Brownstein, J. N., Neiner, J. A., & Greaney, M. L. (2005). A site-specific literature review of policy and environmental interventions that promote physical activity and nutrition for cardiovascular health: What works? American Journal of Health Promotion, 167-193.
Ramsey, L. T., Kahn, E. B., Brownson, R. C., Heath, G. W., Howze, E. H., & Powell, K. E. (2002). The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 73-107.
Wen, L., Thomas, M., Thomas, H., Orr, N., Moreton, R., King, L., et al. (2002). Promoting physical activity in women: evaluation of a 2-yearcommunity-based intervention in Sydney, Australia. Health Promotion International, 127-137.
Winkleby, M. A., & Cubbin, C. (2003). Influence of individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on mortality among black, Mexican-American, and white women and men in the United States. J Epidemiol Community Health, 444-52.