research of Egyptian dragons on our Earth and their legends
|Research of Dragons; Egyptian Dragons:
The very earliest representation known, the model so closely adhered to, is the simplest of all, and in its simplicity best reveals its mythical origin. It is an outline cut on an archaic seal found at Susa, in Persia, which unites the head, wings and feet of a bird (the falcon of Horus) with the lioness of Hathor-Sekhet.
Supreme among the earliest known divinities of Egypt was Re (or Ra). Associated with him was a feminine deity, Hathor, the ‘great Mother,’ or source of all earthly life. At enmity with Ra was a formless being, Set.
As Ra grew aged mankind (created by Hathor) showed signs of rebellion, instigated by Set, and a council of the gods advised that Hathor be sent down to earth to subdue her insurgent progeny. She complied, received the additional epithet ‘Sekhet,’ acquired the ferocious lioness as her symbol, and went about cutting throats until the land was flooded with blood.
Alarmed at the destruction of his subjects, which threatened to be total, Re begged Hathor-Sekhet to desist. She refused, whereupon Ra caused to be brewed a red liquor, a draft of which subdued Hathor’s maniacal rage, and so a remnant of mankind was saved. From that bloody time Hathor’s reputation fell to that of a malignant spirit, for she, who theRetofoRe had been a beneficent ‘giver of life’ had shown herself, in the avatar of Sekhet, a demon of destruction.
Ra fades out and Osiris appears, an earthly king deified as a sort of water-god, who becomes more definitely a personification of the Nile in its beneficent aspect. Hathor becomes his consort Isis, and they produce a son Horus whose symbol is a falcon, sometimes accompanied by serpents, and who carries on Ra’s feud with Set (subsequently murderer of Osiris) under various warrior-methods, such as driving to battle in a chariot drawn by griffins (perpetuated in the Greek gryphon)–perhaps the most primitive incarnations of the dragon.
Set is a water-devil whose followers take the form of crocodiles and other dangerous creatures of the great river; and later we Read of a gigantic snake-like Reptile Apop, which apparently was that long-lived old monster Set, and which later was known among the gods of Greek Olympus as Typhon, a snake-headed giant.
Apop had a corps of typhonic monsters at his call. A host of fabulous monsters seem to have been derived, with more or less claim to true ancestry, from these prehistoric creatures of the Egyptian imagination.
Aker, was a dragon representing the Earth. It bound the coils of Apep. It was believed to preside over the point where the eastern and western horizons of the Underworld met. Aker aids the forces of light by binding and chaining the serpent when Re passes through the underworld.
Ancient Egypt: Apep
Apep [also known as Apophis], a terrifying great sea-serpent, lay in wait in the Egyptian underworld to ambush the sun god, Re, who had to voyage through it each night Ready to rise again. Apep would viciously attack the boat Re was in as he crossed the sky during the day, and when there was an eclipse, it was believed to be due to Apep swallowing the vessel whole. Despite Apep's menace, he never gained complete victory over his eternal enemy. However Apep was also never believed to have been fully vanquished. The Reddening of the sky at dusk was said to demonstrate that the serpent had been overcome by the sun's strength.
Ankh-neteru was a serpent god. Afu Ra [the sun god] had his boat pulled by twelve gods through Ankh-neteru's body, entering the tail and exiting the mouth. This Results in Afu Ra being transformed into Khepera, the ancient god associated with the creation of the world.
Denwen came about during the third millennium B.C. and is described as a fiery serpent. He would have caused an inferno that would have destroyed all of the gods had he not been thwarted by the Egyptian King.
Nehebkau, a servant of Ra, was an Egyptian serpent with human arms and legs. It was the great serpent upon which the world Rested, and is sometimes represented with a man's body and holding the eye of Horus. Nehabkau was known to guard the entrance of the Underworld and accompanied the sun god on his nightly journey through it as well.
Ouroboros is a "tail eater" dragon who constantly holds its tail in its mouth. First discovered in Egypt as early as 1600 BC, Egyptians worshipped Ouroboros, as Sata, (Satan) or "Tuat", on whose back the sun god rose through the underworld each night. In Greece, it is the symbol of the universe and eternity. The serpent devouring its own tail to sustain its life is an eternal cycle of Renewal, symbolizing the cyclic Nature of the Universe - that creation comes forth of destruction, and life out of death. The serpent biting its tail is found in other mythological cultures as well, including Norse myth, where the serpent's name is Jormungand.
The Uraeus was the symbol of sovereignty, worn on the royal Egyptian headdress. It is used as a protective symbol, as the Egyptians believed that the cobra would spit fire at any approaching enemies.
Wadjet was an Egyptian serpent guardian sent by Osiris to protect Pharaoh and control the Nile. The cobra goddess was the patroness of Lower Egypt. Wadjet was part of the Osirian myths and was always viewed as a protector of Egypt, depicted as a woman with a cobra head or as a cobra about to strike at the nation's enemies