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most of the waters in our ecosystems are severely compromised by various human activities.
         Running head: WATER          POLLUTION                     1








Water Pollution

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Water Pollution

          Presently, most of the waters in our ecosystems are severely compromised following the various human activities. The process in which pollutants are discharged into water bodies without prior treatment to remove harmful compounds is what it is referred to as water pollution. Three human activities that act as sources of pollution include agricultural, industrial and establishment of municipalities (The Gale Group, Inc., 2005). These harmful materials can be organic or inorganic. Nonetheless, the organic compounds have been found to pose adverse effects to water bodies. Such materials may include fauna and flora refuse, agrochemicals, sediments, or industrial wastes. Notably, when these organic substances are decomposing in water bodies, they consume the oxygen required by the aquatic organisms for respiration, hence, leading to their death.
Agricultural practices that entail deforestation expose the soil to agents of soil erosion. When soil sediments are carried to streams, they hinder sunlight from reaching photosynthetic organisms such as the zooplanktons which are a source of food for aquatic animals (Andreen, 2003). In this regard, all the organisms that depend on such plants for food will perish. Additionally, through the process of erosion, agrochemicals such as fertilizers are transported and deposited into rivers. Excessive levels of nitrogen and phosphorous in water sources causes eutrophication which is characterized by the massive growth of aquatic vegetation (The Gale Group, Inc., 2005). This phenomenon will not only render waterways impassable but also will smother some aquatic plants. The accumulation of nutrients in water bodies can make water bodies evolve naturally into dry lands.
Industrial processes that release heated water into lakes and oceans reduce the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. In so doing, the growth of algae will be hastened, and this act may disrupt reproduction of aquatic animals (The Gale Group, Inc., 2005). Industrial effluents that contain hazardous substances such as mercury may lead to poisoning. Furthermore, sewage wastes in various municipals may contain chemicals which are toxic and carcinogenic to human beings. It may also contain hazardous chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from perfumes, chlorinated solvents from dry cleaners and pesticides.
This topic was captivating because water is essential to all bio-forms. In addition, water forms a medium in which pathogens multiply and spread infections (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, & Barnett, 2008). Furthermore, water is a universal solvent thus both toxic, and the non-toxic compound can dissolve in it. In this regard, if care is not taken many individuals may perish due to consumption of contaminated water. Water pollution is a global crisis that affects both developing and developed countries. In India, most of the rivers, lakes and even the ocean are polluted. It is estimated that most of the deaths reported in this country arise following water pollution illnesses (Greenstone & Hanna, 2011). In China, about 90% of water in its cities is polluted. In 2007, Chinese people had no access to safe drinking water. In addition, the national development agency stated that seven main rivers in China were poisoned (Wang et al., 2008). In the United States, most of its rivers and lakes are polluted, and this saw the need to establish the federal water pollution control act (Andreen, 2003).
In conclusion, water pollution is a huge problem facing the globe today. Lack of healthy water for domestic and agricultural use would mean that the human lives would be at stake. Water is life. Therefore, it would be imperative for every individual to be responsible and work cordially with the various organizations that are striving to address the menace of water pollution before it escalates to irredeemable levels.


References

Andreen, W. L. (2003). The evolution of water pollution control in the United States-State, local, and federal efforts, 1789-1972: Part II. Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 22(215-294).
Greenstone, M., & Hanna, R. (2011). Environmental regulations, air and water pollution, and infant mortality in India (No. w17210). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Gale Group, Inc. (2005). Water pollution. West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437704663.html
Wang, M., Webber, M., Finlayson, B., & Barnett, J. (2008). Rural industries and water pollution in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 86(4), 648-659.


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