I have written a short article of about 350 words on diabetes and its selfmangent.
| DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Diabetes Mellitus is the amalgam of two words: Diabetes meaning " To pass away " and Mellitus meaning " Sugar ".So literally it is defined as "To pass away sugar in urine".
Technically it is defined as the condition in which blood sugar level is raised beyond a critical point (180mg/dL) after which it starts to appear in urine.This critical point is called RENAL THRESHOLD.
NORMAL BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS
Fasting Blood Sugar = 70-110 mg/dL
Random Blood Sugar = 70-140 mg/dL
HOW BLOOD SUGAR IS REGULATED?
Whenever we take food,it is broken down into its components in small gut and from here it is absorbed.As the blood glucose (Sugar) increases,the level of insulin also starts rising in the blood.Then insulin increases the entry of glucose into almost all tissues of the body by binding to its cell surface receptors.However some tissues do not require the interference of insulin for the glucose uptake such as Brain,RBCs,Liver and Pancreatic B-cells.Glucose is then metabolized in the tissues to meet their energy demands.Thus the blood glucose levels are maintained.
TYPES On the basis of insulin availability and receptor sensitivity,Diabetes is classified into two types.
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and its PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
In this type of Diabetes,B-cells of pancreas do not secrete insulin and it is not available to make the tissues susceptible for glucose uptake.So blood glucose level goes on increasing and hence renal threshold is acheived and glucose starts to appear in urine.This type of diabetes usually occur in 5-30 years of age and hence it is called Juvenile Diabetes.
TYPE 2 Diabetes (T2D) and its PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
In this type,the sensitivity of the receptors present on the cells of various tissues is altered or lost.So inspite of the presence of insulin,the level of blood glucose goes on rising.At the onset of the disease,pancreatic B-cells secrete large amounts of insulin to cope with the condition but later on they become fatigued.T2D usually occur after 30 years of age and hence it is called Adult Diabetes.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISEASE
Diabetes can occur at any age and to anyone.However,there are certain factors which make the person more prone to the disease.These are:
The symptoms related to the disease are:
Diabetes is known as the mother of all diseases.It can cause damage to every organ and organ system of the body.The complications of diabetes can be:
Atherosclerosis (Deposition of plaques in the vessels due to high levels of cholesterol),Hypertension,Coronary artery disease,Diabetic Nephropathy,Stroke,Premature Cataract,Diabetic foot,Diabetic Neuropathy,Poor wound Healing.
Uptill now,no proper treatment and cure of diabetes mellitus has been discovered.However,the disease can be managed by using drugs which either increase insulin secretion from pancreatic B-cells or enhance the sensitivity of the insulin receptors present on the various cells.
The self-management of this disease is highly important along with the medication prescribed by the physician.Following steps must be followed for the proper managment of the disease:
1) Do excercise daily:
Walking is the best excercise.A daily walk of 6000-8000 steps helps you to avoid the complications of diabetes.It makes the muscles of body permeable to glucose and hence helps in maintaining blood glucose levels.A U.S based research also proved that during walking endogenous substances such as dynorphins and encephalins are released in the body.They produce euphoria and elevates the mood.
2) Avoid Stress and try to keep yourself calm and happy
3) Do not overeat
4) Modify the lifestyle and avoid sedentary lifestyle
5) Maintain weight : The girth of adult human belly at the level of umbilicus (Belly Button) must be less than 31.5 inches in females and 35 inches in males.
6) Avoid alcohol intake
7) Regularly check your Blood glucose
Diabetes Mellitus demands proper management and care.It actually wants the person to live in strict boundaries with balanced diet paln and modified lifestyle.