An idea or thing given human attributes: This book speaks to me, the seeing-eye dog loves his job, or my car is trying to kill me
When two or more words end in the same sound: Bouquet/say/underway/fae/weigh or tall/ball/gall
Usually an adverb or adjective, this word denotes the extreme of 3 or more things and will usually end in -est or will have "least" or "most" in front of them: Cutest, least helpful, or most challenging
Repetition of the initial sound: Bob's been bored because Bonny's busy or The things she shot through Theo's room reminded him of her
A word to denote a sound: Buzz, pow, swish
The ultimate rival or situation the hero must overcome: Lex Luthor or kryptonite for Superman, Voldemort for Harry Potter, or the wicked stepmother for Cinderella
This type of rhyme is when two or more words end in a similar, but not exact sound: Musk/dust or punctual/hall
Deliberate exaggeration for effect: I had a million emails waiting for me, she's as light as a feather, or you're killing me
The interruption of the forward chronology of events to show the past
The use of an item, character, action, etc. to represent something different, usually more universal, beyond the literal item, character, etc.: 4-leaf clover means good luck, balloons represent hopes and dreams in Disney's movie, "Up"
This type of justice means the good guys get rewarded and the bad guys get punished, typically through an ironic twist of events
The artful ridicule of a problem, often a social or governmental one, through humor, scorn, etc. as a means for pointing out the problem to evoke change. Literary examples: Brave New World, Animal Farm, or Catch-22
A sometimes humorous remark intended to mock or satirize: This genius put the cake in the oven without turning it on, What a surprise--you're late again, or I'm clearly not a racecar driver (said when driving the speed limit)
The use of descriptive language to evoke emotions or senses: The buttery light crept out from under the door, The sound sprinted through my ears and into my brain, or His words struck like a dagger
Opposite of hyperbole--a statement intentionally making a situation seem less bad than it is: "it's a bit nippy out today" when it's 20 degrees below freezing or "It's a scratch" for a mortal wound
A word or phrase used in place of something that makes people uncomfortable to make it appear more palatable: Let go = got fired, passed away = died, or bun in the oven = pregnant
The combination of 2 or more senses to describe something more vividly: Sweet sound, warm colors, or bitter cold
When future events of a story are hinted at early on: A dark red room is later the place of a murder, someone says they've always been afraid of water and later drowns, or a character breaks a mirror then experiences a lot of bad events
The writer's individual writing style that brings characters to life. Different characters also have this.
Incorrectly using a similar-sounding word: Alcoholics Unanimous (instead of Anonymous), Our malevolent leader cut taxes and created a new federal holiday (instead of benevolent), or He's a very illegible bachelor (instead of eligible)
The needless overuse of words to say the same thing more than once: Free gift, 6 of one/half dozen of the other, or PIN number (Personal Identification Number number)
Newly created word: Smog (smoke + fog), retweet (repost a Twitter tweet), webinar (web + seminar)
Something used repeatedly throughout a story which contributes to the theme--different from a symbol which is used only once or twice: Green in "The Great Gatsby" represents the unattainable American dream, light and dark in "Romeo and Juliet
Comparison that uses "like" or "as": As strong as an ox, rough as sandpaper, or slept like a log
This is a type of rhyme where the ending consonant is the same, but the ending vowel isn't: Cut/mat, kilt/cult, or worm/swarm
Use of negative wording to create an understatement: "It wasn't cheap" for an expensive car or "The weather isn't great" during a tornado
A word that replaces a closely associated or similar word: Ride = car, Silicon Valley = America's technology industry, or silver fox = attractive older man
Two or more words or phrases with the same or similar meaning: Happy/glad/pleased, cursed/doomed/ill-fated/jinxed, or dog/canine
This type of hero has a tragic flaw(s) that cause their downfall, despite audience sympathy/pity for them: Hamlet, Romeo, or Jay Gatsby in "The Great Gatsby"
A type of voice in which the sentence shifts focus from the subject, often making the sentence more ambiguous. It is usually discouraged in writing: Mistakes were made (often discouraged style of writing) vs. We made mistakes (typically preferred style
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