The brain has close links with the speech.
The brain has close links with the speech. According Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, the human brain is divided into two parts: the right (hemisfir right) and the left (hemisfir left). The second part of the same physical form, but there are parts of different functions. At the time of birth, there is no strict division of tasks between the two. Both are an integral and plastic.
By the age of puberty, or lateralisasi penyebelahan process occurs, ie a process in which both parts of this plasticity is reduced, and there was a kind of job shedding in hemisfir left. On the left hemisfir have found the parts related to language.
Broca found in a patient affected adhasia, that these patients get a little wound in the left front helisfir. This section is further evidenced as one part that controls speech and now well known as Broca's area.
Furthermore, Broca said that the basis of speech depends on four factors: 1) An idea, 2) the conventional relationship between ideas and words, 3) Sara articulation motion juxtaposition with the word, and 4) use the tools of articulation.
In contrast to Broca's discovery, the discovery made by Wernicke related matters penanggapan senses. In his findings, he discovered that the back of the brain right next to the nest rather the responses taste (sensory impressions). These cells are actually not the motor or sensory, but more dependent on relationships with other cortex-cortex. Henceforth, Wernicke's area is the first area or at least one of the first area, which menangdapi sensory stimuli.
In addition to Broca's and Wernicke's area, there is one area more directly related to the speech, namely superior cortical areas. This area controls the mechanism used to drive cortical neurons penyuara. These nerves form a series of mechanisms in the Rolando area, lined up to Broca.
In connection with the parts and functions of the brain, there arose a hypothesis that connects the human biological growth with level-level mastery of language. This hypothesis is known as the "Critical Age Hypothesis." This hypothesis basically says that:
1) Mastery of the language they grew parallel to biological growth.
2) After puberty, the natural language acquisition can not work anymore.
Bambang Kaswanti Purwo say at the age of twelve years, is often found that the child has mastered the language perfectly. However, there are still many mistakes. Though the age they were at the doorway end of the most sensitive and most plastic in the process of language acquisition (the gold to learn the language).
As already described above, according to research results Lenneberg aged between three and ten years is the period pewnyempurnaan shortcomings in the grammar. Palermo and Molfese noted that the ages between five and seven years, and between twelve and fourteen years is a transition period in language development.